Beside the economic and social problems plaguing the country, the Russian Empire was still recovering from a humiliating defeat at the Russo-Japanese War of One of Nicholas's reasons for going to war in was his desire to restore the prestige that Russia had lost during that war. Nicholas also wanted to galvanize the diverse people in his empire under a single banner by directing military force at a common enemy, namely Germany and the Central Powers.
He believed by doing so he could also distract the people from the ongoing issues of poverty, inequality, and poor working conditions that were sources of discontent.
Instead of restoring Russia's political and military standing, World War I would lead to horrifying military casualties on the Russian side and undermined it further. From the beginning the troops were not adequately supplied with weapons, or were led by incompetent generals and officers. Logistics were also a problem, since Russia's poorly maintained roads and railroads inhibited communication and distribution of supplies. Almost everywhere Russian forces were matched against German forces who had a superior advantage in weaponry, military talent, and logistics. World War I Russia's recent history was a litany of military failures.
Most of Russia's fleet was sunk by the Japanese in that war. While the Russian army enjoyed some initial successes against Austria-Hungary in , Russia's deficiencies — particularly regarding the equipment of its soldiers and the lack of advanced technology aeroplanes, telephones, poison gas became increasingly evident. Russia's first major battle of the war was a disaster.
In the Battle of Tannenberg , over , Russian troops were killed, wounded, or captured, while Germany suffered only 20, casualties. Whatever nationalistic or patriotic support the Russian government had gained in the initial time frame leading up to the war had been lost. In , things took a critical turn for the worse when Germany shifted its focus of attack to the Eastern front.
The superior German army - better led, better trained, better supplied - was terrifyingly effective against the ill-equipped Russian forces. By the end of October , Russia had lost between 1. These were staggering losses. Mutinies began to occur, and in reports of fraternizing with the enemy started to circulate.
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Soldiers went hungry and lacked shoes, munitions, and even weapons. Sometimes entire regiments would be sent to the front without guns, only hoping that before they made contact with the enemy, they would find weapons from soldiers that had been killed in earlier waves. Heavy artillery was also in such short supply in many engagements, that for every shells fired by the Russian forces the Germans would respond with up to 3, Rampant discontent lowered morale, only to be further undermined by a series of military defeats.
In the autumn of , Nicholas had taken direct command of the army, personally overseeing Russia's main theatre of war and leaving his ambitious though incapable wife Alexandra in charge of the government. Reports of corruption and incompetence in the Imperial government began to emerge, and the growing influence of Grigori Rasputin in the Imperial family was widely resented.
Nicholas was blamed for all these crises, and what little support he had left began to crumble.
As this discontent grew, the State Duma issued a warning to Nicholas in November stating that disaster would overtake the country unless a constitutional form of government was put in place. In typical fashion, Nicholas ignored them. As a result, Russia's Tsarist regime collapsed a few months later during the February Revolution of A year later, the Tsar and his family were executed.
Ultimately, Nicholas's inept handling of his country and the War destroyed the Tsarist regime and would ultimately cost him both his rule and his life. In addition, Russian progressives saw Tsarist society as resting on a bedrock of violence due to its exclusion of most of its population such as the lower classes and non-Russian nations from the political process.
In reaction to this, in the 19th and early 20th centuries, underground cells of conspiratorial intellectuals and revolutionary martyrs assassinated thousands of figures associated with the state, including Tsar Alexander II himself in As well as the isolated acts of conspirators, pre-war Russian society also saw different types of collective violence, including working-class violence linked to strikes and other forms of labour unrest. After initially quelling this unrest with concessions and reforms, the Russian state made sweeping use of martial law and extraordinary measures — their arbitrary use of power creating an atmosphere of oppression.
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Usage terms Public Domain. Many historians have stressed the radicalising role of the First World War on this pre-existing violence. The war tested the European states to their limits and ultimately, in the defeated nations, brought their entire social systems into crisis. The breakup of the Russian state throughout left a void of authority which many parties and organisations struggled to fill — the externalised violence of the war was redirected internally, and intensified.
The February Revolution which deposed the Tsar is often depicted as relatively bloodless, but in fact its casualties were far greater than those of the more famous October Revolution which brought the Bolsheviks to power. On the first days of the revolution in Petrograd, hundreds of marchers were shot by troops defending the old order, and in the chaos, around 1, people are thought to have been killed. Among the high ideals of the Revolution, however, was the creation of a more humane society. The Provisional Government quickly abolished the death penalty and granted Russian citizens important new civil rights.
Even so, its fortunes would largely be defined by their continued commitment to fighting the war to the finish. The Provisional Government struggled to deal with the violent forces unleashed by the fall of the autocracy, including factory occupations, mutinies among the armed forces, and violence perpetrated as peasants seized land for themselves away from the landlords.
Many peasant-soldiers preferred to return to their home villages and take part in the expropriations of land rather than continue to fight in the war, fearing that they would lose out if they stayed on the front lines while land was being redistributed back home.
It was in the context of disintegrating state power, various forms of unrest across the country and rising dissatisfaction with the continuing slaughter in the war that the far-left Bolshevik Party gained influence. Lenin , the leader of the Bolsheviks, wanted to end the war, but not for reasons of pacifism.
He believed that violence would continue as long as society was divided into fundamentally opposed social classes, inevitably leading to social conflict, and as long as capitalist governments required imperialism to maintain themselves, inevitably provoking wars between nations.
He hoped to transform the First World War from a conflict between nations into a European-wide civil war between classes — between, in his view, the working-class and those who exploited them.
To win this class war, the Bolsheviks thought it would be necessary to replace the various capitalist states with a working-class dictatorship able to suppress by force any attempts at counter-revolution. There are a lot of things to talk about on this topic, but to save some time here is a short list of the information.
Top 5 Causes of the Russian Revolution – Explained!
First is what the word intellectuals is and how it was for the people and government of Russia. Second would be about the first Intelligently and how it started, under the Soviet rule and many other things. Fifth and finally….
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Introduction Every revolution has to bear a semblance of nobility with regards to the slogans that characterize it. The events that followed were termed the Russian Revolution. It led to the end of a year-old imperial government and the creation of the first communist nation. Despite the fact that the Russian Revolution is called a single event, it was in fact first, a revolution, then, a coup.
The first revolution was really a street riot over food scarcity gone out of control. Pressure from the people and Duma, the officially sanctioned….
Causes Of The Russian Revolution History Essay
The Russian Revolution was one of the most important revolutions in the 20th century. This revolution was against economic oppression, meaning the higher class, lower, and middle class were being affected. The main cause of the Russian revolution was the wars that Russia was in which affected the economy. These wars caused workers to riot because their pay was low due to the fact most of the money was used for the war. Tsar Nicholas was the leader of Russia during the time, but he was a horrible….
The Russian Revolution is the collective term for a pair of revolutions in Russia in , which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the eventual rise of the Soviet Union. The Russian Empire collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II, and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February In the second revolution that October, the Provisional Government was removed and replaced with a Bolshevik government. The February Revolution….
The Russian Revolution was perhaps one the most important events of the 20th century; it cannot be doubted that it had a massive influence on social ideologies and world history.
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