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US-Film in Europa. Model Classical Antiquity. Translatio Imperii im Moskauer Russland. Kongregation von Saint-Maur.
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Idealisierung der Urkirche. Medizinische Humanisten. Galen-Rezeption Melanchthons. Roman Law and Reception. Model Europe. Homo Europaeus. Europa-Netzwerke der Zwischenkriegszeit.
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Concepts of Europe. Model Germania. Model Italy. Banca, giro, storno. Wirtschaft und Landwirtschaft. Versailles Model. Enlightenment Philosophy. The early eighteenth century witnessed the birth in England of the "Spectators", a journalistic and literary genre that developed in the wake of the Glorious Revolution Beginning in these newspapers and their fictitious narrators would influence the entire European continent.
In the Anglophone world the "Spectators" were also called "periodical essays", whereas in German-speaking lands they were known as "Moralische Wochenschriften" or, in a re-translation into English, as "Moral Weeklies". These periodicals constituted a new public medium, aimed especially at a bourgeois audience and responsible for a brisk discursive transfer. They thus not only added further dimensions to public communication, but they also contributed decisively to the development of modern narrative forms.
The Spectator genre owed its development in England to the political and cultural events of the late 17th century. In the reigns of William III of Orange — and his successor Queen Anne Stuart — , new forms of democratic sensibility emerged that diverged from absolutist models and laid the foundation for the genesis and promotion of public communication. England had long since set its own course, one that was critically opposed to the traditional social forms of the European continent.
Work in Parliament laid the foundation for English law, and new public structures arose; both processes were closely connected to the development of medial communication.
The reigning moral code became that of the sober and pragmatic Protestant worldview, which underlay the national stereotype of the "practical Englishman". The philosopher John Locke — , the founder of modern epistemology and the critique of knowledge, gladly returned to England after William ascended the throne With his works An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Some Thoughts Concerning Education he contributed decisively to both the reflection on the process of social renewal and the communication of knowledge in the modern sense. The time was slowly arriving for the successful English model to be exported to the European continent.
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Philosophy was joined by freedom of the press, introduced in , in promoting the notion of fairness and tolerance. This brought with it a trend towards liberalization that strengthened the middle class's sense of itself, giving rise to an appreciable feeling that change was in the air. At that time the gentry set the tone in English society, and its ideal of the gentleman served as the model for the emerging bourgeoisie, especially in the capital city of London.
Critical observers, however, found fault with this code of behaviour, claiming that it was otiose, morally nonchalant and constituted a playing field for the increasing depravity of culture. At the turn of the century, numerous cries were heard for the comprehensive reform of morals and behavioural patterns. Men of letters fruitfully joined forces with journalists at the inauguration of this "Augustan Age" — Jonathan Swift — , Daniel Defoe — , Joseph Addison — [ ] and Richard Steele — [ ] were active as both magazine authors and literary writers.
Parallel to the advent of new journalistic forms, the coffee house took on an important role, acting more and more as the setting for the public exchange of ideas and aiding the development of its visitors' facility for discussion. The literary roots of the periodical essays can be found partly in French culture, which at the time still served as the model for wide social circles in Europe. Nicolas Boileau's — writings provided access to discussions about the reception of the hegemonic textual forms of Greek and Roman antiquity.
Michel de Montaigne's — Essais also influenced the development of the Spectators , although the latter departed from the authentic first-person narrator of the French model and vanish behind the mask of a fictional narrator. This was the background for the journalistic enterprise of the Whig Richard Steele, who launched The Tatler. By Isaac Bickerstaff, Esq. The paper ran on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Sundays, the days on which mail was delivered in the countryside. The rhythm suggested by the term "weekly" had not yet been established. It would first come into use in continental imitations, especially in connection with German papers.
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Thus a genre was created that in the course of the century would spread all over Europe in hundreds of different periodicals. The distinctive feature of this model lay in the fact that it did not just engage in the didactic moralism typical of Anglican devotional literature but rather presented moral considerations in a new, playful and informal way. In his first "Spectatorial" enterprise Steele used the persona of Isaac Bickerstaff, a fictional character originally contrived by Jonathan Swift.
This imaginary figure was well known in England and especially in London, and thus this first observer of contemporary society was in a certain sense "trustworthy. Many contemporaries might have guessed that Steele was behind the mask, but only in the final issue of the newspaper did the true author identify himself. Nevertheless, in a letter to the editor Bickerstaff was prompted to continue his intellectual game. A sequel to the project was thus to be expected. Indeed, a few weeks later, on 1 March , the next journal appeared.
It was entitled Spectator and was much more sophisticated and complex than its predecessor. The Spectator acted as an anonymous, omnipresent observer who carefully examined conditions in the country. He was supported by a streetwise social club whose debates and raisonnements fascinated contemporary readers.
With its shrewd style, elegant argumentation, and subtle humour, this new paper, on which Steele was again joined by Joseph Addison, exceeded all expectations. The extensive inclusion of numerous letters to the editor was part of the Spectator 's basic design. The objectivity and sober-mindedness of its main characters, along with its high capacity for abstraction, would make the Spectator with its issues a prototype for the genre of the moral weeklies. The third and last journalistic prototype was the short-lived magazine The Guardian , which first appeared on 12 March and reached issues.
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