Today the genetic Varity within species is being eroded at an alarming rate over increasing number of species rich ecosystems are disrupted, mutilated or destroyed. This is due to shifting cultivation, forest clearance, direct exploitation of forest, construction of road and railways. The conservation of population needs the conservation of genetic variation.
Threats may also be at the individual species level due to loss, disruption or destruction of habitats. Many terrestrial species and declining seriously. The change in the practice of agriculture by the use of herbicides and fertilizer there is a decline in farmland plants.
The native and endemic species are threatened to a small region land found nowhere else. Many of such species are on the verge of extinction.
Conservation of Biodiversity Essay
Biodiversity discourages the use of monocultures since these are highly susceptible to attack pests and diseases as compared to natural forest ecosystem. Extinction of plant and animals occur after a long period of decline. A combination of natural breeding and monoculture is required for conservative of species. Removing just one species from an ecosystem can prevent the ecosystem from operating optimally. Perhaps the greatest value of biodiversity is yet unknown. Scientists have discovered and named only 1.
Of those identified, only a fraction has been examined for potential medicinal, agricultural or industrial value. Most biologists agree that life on Earth now is faced with the most severe extinction episode since the event that drove the dinosaurs to extinction 65 million years ago. Species of plants, animals, fungi and microscopic organisms such as bacteria are being lost at alarming rates.
Because of this, scientists around the world are focusing their research on cataloging and studying global biodiversity in an effort to better understand it and slow the rate of loss.
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As a result, the majority of current biodiversity research concentrates on preserving biodiversity and assessing environmental quality and change. Biodiversity plays an important role in the way ecosystems function and in the services they provide. The following is a list of some of the benefits, or services, of biodiversity:. Biodiversity includes three main types: diversity within species genetic diversity , between species species diversity and between ecosystems ecosystem diversity. Every species on Earth is related to every other species through genetic connections.
The more closely related any two species are, the more genetic information they will share, and the more similar they will appear. Members of a species share genes, the bits of biochemical information that determine, in part, how the animals look, behave and live. One eastern gray squirrel, for example, shares the vast majority of its genes with other eastern gray squirrels, whether they live in the same area or are separated by thousands of miles.
Members of a species also share complex mating behaviors that enable them to recognize each other as potential mates. For virtually every species there is a similar and closely related species in an adjacent habitat.
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Western, instead of eastern, gray squirrels are found west of the Rocky Mountains. Although western gray squirrels are more similar to than different from their eastern counterparts, these animals do not share a common mating behavior with eastern gray squirrels. Even when brought into close proximity, eastern and western gray squirrels do not mate — so they constitute two distinct species. Each species also has other, more remotely related species with which it shares a more general set of characteristics.
Reason for Loss of Biodiversity
Gray squirrels, chipmunks, marmots and prairie dogs all belong to the squirrel family because they share a number of features, such as tooth number and shape and details of skull and muscle anatomy. All of these animals are rodents, a large group of more distantly related animals who share similar, chisel-like incisor teeth that grow continuously.
All rodents are related to a broader group, mammals. Mammals have hair, raise their young on milk and have three bones in the middle ear. All mammals, in turn, are more distantly related to other animals with backbones, or vertebrates.
Essay on Biodiversity for Children and Students
All these organisms are animals but share a common cell structure with plants, fungi and some microbes. Finally, all living organisms share a common molecule, ribonucleic acid RNA , and most also have deoxyribonucleic acid DNA.
While all species have descended from a single, common ancestor, species diverge and develop their own peculiar attributes with time, thus making their own contribution to biodiversity. Species diversity is the variety of species within a habitat or a region. Species are the basic units of biological classification and thus the normal measure of biological diversity. Species richness is the term that describes the number of different species in a given area.
The world total is estimated at five to 10 million species, though only 1. Some habitats, such as rainforests and coral reefs, have many species. For example, tropical North and South America has about 85, flowering plant species, tropical and subtropical Asia has more than 50, and tropical and subtropical Africa has about 35, By contrast, all of Europe has 11, vascular plants. Yet other areas, such as salt flats or a polluted stream, have fewer species.
1.1 What is biodiversity?
Species are grouped together into families according to shared characteristics. Ecological diversity is the intricate network of different species present in local ecosystems and the dynamic interplay between them. An ecosystem consists of organisms from many different species living together in a region and their connections through the flow of energy, nutrients and matter. Those connections occur as the organisms of different species interact with one another.
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The ultimate source of energy in almost every ecosystem is the sun. That energy flows through the systems when animals eat the plants and then are eaten, in turn, by other animals. Fungi derive energy by decomposing organisms, which releases nutrients back into the soil. Thus, an ecosystem is a collection of living components microbes, plants, animals and fungi and nonliving components climate and chemicals that are connected by energy flow. Concern about environmental destruction led to the signing of several national and international agreements.
Governments signed a number of regional and international agreements to tackle specific issues, such as protecting wetlands and regulating the international trade in endangered species. Those agreements, along with controls on toxic chemicals and pollution, have helped slow the tide of destruction — but they have not reversed it. An international treaty known as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora went into effect in to outlaw the trade of endangered animals and animal parts.
In the United States, the Endangered Species Act was enacted in to protect endangered or threatened species and their habitats. In , the World Commission on Environment and Development the Brundtland Commission concluded that economic development must become less ecologically destructive. It was the first global agreement on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. More than governments signed the document at that conference, and since then more than countries have ratified the agreement.
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