Open Document. Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper. Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly. Two of the biggest holidays in the United States are Christmas and Easter. Both of which are derived from Christian beliefs.
Even though 'The Lottery' is apparently a pagan ritual, violent and horrific, it is appropriate, only by the fact that the participants no longer remember, or seem to care, what the original intent of the ritual or the significance of its traditions Powerful Essays words 3. Others might claim that the poem fails to exhibit Christian concepts of good and evil, especially since the poet concludes his first epistle with the seemingly unchristian claim that "whatever IS, is Right" I.
Yet Pope's arguments actually reflect a traditional Christian perspective, which can be verified by comparing his poem with New Testament teachings. In his attempt to vindicate God in the face of suffering, he does not, like the pantheist, rule out the existence of evil Powerful Essays words 8.
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Ethical values of Christians cannot be reduced to a set of rules that can be easily followed and obeyed. Powerful Essays words 5. It is also important to see how the faith has developed over time and how doctrine was written and rewritten. One of the figures that have had an impact on the modern day Christian tradition is Athanasius. Powerful Essays words 4. It marks the transition of the individual from one stage or state in life onto the next.
Does Conscience Point Towards the Existence of God? | Word on Fire
In terms of the Christian community it marks the transition of a person from being outside of this community to becoming a fully initiated member. For most denominations it also has significance as a statement of a person's beliefs in the Christian tradition and is an integral part of our salvation and the coming of the Holy Spirit.
Baptism also allows Christians to share in the death and resurrection of Christ and cleanses people from the stain of original sin Powerful Essays words 2. Couple A argues that is not up to Christianity to dictate what they should and should not celebrate, and uses Romans to support their argument. Conscience may be defined as a subjective norm of morality, which involves the process of applying and committing to individual knowledge of moral principals and values to specific cases. If one fails to follow their conscience, guilt will arise. It is clear then, that Aquinas believes consciences to be entirely inseparable from God because its purpose is to guide us towards Him.
Aquinas attempts to prove the existence of God in the Summa Theologica but none of his arguments can be said to be conclusive. Another argument against the statement comes from Erich Fromm. Fromm developed two different theories on the conscience, neither requiring God as its source. His first theory is known as the authoritative conscience which is best examined in a social environment such as Nazi Germany. The model suggests that people can be socialised into a submissive position in relation to the authority of the state. Furthermore, the submission causes an internalised regulation of behaviours in line with the moral imperatives given out by police or political broadcasts.
The Law and the Falsely Terrified Conscience
The conscience becomes the command of the leaders and people will feel guilt when they go against the social norms dictated by that authority. There are parallels here to the Freudian model due to its insistence on conscience being learned through our environment. It also implies a lack of objective morality outside of culture because in theory, the Nazis established a set of rules which became the standard by which the individual conscience submitted to.
This then, for the people living under Nazi rule, was right. Fromm adapted his position later in his career to a more optimistic view, stating that the human conscience could overcome the oppression of outside authority. However, whichever stance is taken, Fromm does not require God to be present in origin or activity of the conscience. Butler believed there to be two main factors driving human moral behaviours — self-love and benevolence.
It is the job of the conscience to intuitively guide our actions towards the love of others, rather than ourselves when it is necessary. For Butler , intuition is a gift from God and it should always be listened to. Nevertheless, there are issues with his point of view also. Butler is trying to claim that these intuitions are natural to human-beings and that compassion and empathy are as natural to us as aggression and malevolence are according to Thomas Hobbes.
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Bonobos are the only apes which do not kill and tests have also shown them to share food willingly with others. Perhaps more interesting to the debate, they demonstrate contagious yawning with strangers, a sign of empathy which we also show. Therefore, the conclusion follows- the intuitions, which Butler is wanting to attribute to God, are not found only in us but elsewhere.
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Therefore, the conscience might not require God at all, instead it is just a product of our evolution. To conclude, as we learn more about human behaviour and evolution, it is getting harder to justify a need for God in our moral decision-making process. View all posts by eitheroressays. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account.
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